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Development of a high-throughput fine line metallization process using CFD simulation



To demonstrate the development of a centrally fed parallel dispensing system by means of analytical and numerical fluid simulation


To study the novel parallel high-precision fine line dispensing unit currently in development at Fraunhofer ISE


Rheological data from highly viscous, shear thinning, yield stress metal pastes used for thick film metallization approaches in photovoltaics were fed into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation tool.

Rheological behavior of two different non-Newtonian, yield stress dispensing pastes was compared with that of water in terms of their laminar pipe flow profile.

Different nozzle geometries were analyzed using a commercial CFD simulation tool with respect to the evolution of pressure, pressure gradient, velocity, and shear rate distribution.



A prototype parallel dispensing unit containing ten nozzles was designed and optimized using the same tool until a homogeneous paste distribution to all nozzles was



The influence of fabrication tolerances, especially those related to nozzle diameter, was isolated and a suitable fabrication process was chosen.



Process optimization using a single nozzle approach led to an average finger width below 35 μm.
単一のノズルを用いた加工の最適化法ではフィンガー幅の平均が35 μm未満になった。



A detailed analysis of the process stability of parallel-dispensed cells will be given in a future study.

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