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The magnetic force produced by a magnet can be explained plainly as being generated by the electronic state of the material, which is related to electron spin. Electron spin is the state of rotation of the electrons in the electron shell of an atom.



Magnetism is thought to originate from the rotation of electrons. Although the electrons are orbiting around the atomic nucleus, they are also rotating on their own axis, and the current generated by this rotation is also affected by the direction of rotation, which produces magnetic force. This is the famous “right hand rule.”



Materials which lack magnetic properties are called paramagnetic substances. They have a pair of electrons that rotate to the right and to the left, canceling the magnetic force generated by spin. This is part of quantum theory.



There is one more related theory called “the exchange reaction,” which states that all electrons have independent spin magnetism, and there is assumed to be fixed rules between them, which explains the differences between the three types of magnetic substances: ferromagnets, paramagnets, and diamagnets. That is to say, that the electrons inside magnetic substances undergo a reaction with each other to align their rotational poles. Likewise, the electrons inside diamagnetic substances interact in a way that each electron spins in the opposite direction of the closest magnetic field.

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